Category: Communicate business concepts chapter 4

Communicate business concepts chapter 4

For details on it including licensingclick here. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. You can browse or download additional books there.

Has this book helped you? Consider passing it on: Help Creative Commons Creative Commons supports free culture from music to education. Their licenses helped make this book available to you. Help a Public School DonorsChoose. Peter F. Drucker Electric communication will never be a substitute for the face of someone who with their soul encourages another person to be brave and true. Charles Dickens Improving Communication When you walked into work this morning, you said your normal "good mornings" and everyone cheerfully said good morning back to you but one coworker.

This is a coworker you have had problems with for quite some time. The problems seem to stem from your two different styles of communication. You like to be quick and to the point, so you find yourself e- mailing a lot.

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Your coworker, Nanci, prefers to have every conversation in person. You feel that while talking in person is nice, it can also be difficult since everyone has such a hectic schedule. Your workstyle is focused on saving time and using time as wisely as possible.

For example, Nanci asked you to give her a client's e- mail address. You copied and pasted it from an earlier e- mail and e- mailed it to Nanci. Nanci got very upset at this and commented about your need to always e- mail things instead of talking in person.

You told her it was easier to do it that way, plus it prevented the chance that you would write the address down wrong. Nanci did not accept this response. In another example, Nanci stopped by your office to ask about your willingness to help set up for the company holiday party.

Nanci starting talking with you about the decorations and you interrupted and told her you would be happy to do so and asked her what time you should be there. Nanci again got upset and told you she had no idea. Her body language showed frustration and you couldn't understand why, as you were only asking a reasonable question about timing.

Finally, you decide to talk with your supervisor about these issues.The written word often stands in place of the spoken word. Writing a message to friends or colleagues can be as natural as talking to them. Yet when we are asked to write something, we often feel anxious and view writing as a more effortful, exacting process than talking would be. Oral and written forms of communication are similar in many ways. They both rely on the basic communication process, which consists of eight essential elements: source, receiver, message, channel, receiver, feedback, environment, context, and interference.

Table 4. As you can see from the applications in this example, at least two different kinds of interference have the potential to ruin a conference call, and the interference can exist regardless of whether the communication to plan the call is oral or written.

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While this example has an unfavorable outcome, it points out a way in which oral and written communication processes are similar. Another way in which oral and written forms of communication are similar is that they can be divided into verbal and nonverbal categories. Verbal communication involves the words you say, and nonverbal communication involves how you say them—your tone of voice, your facial expression, body language, and so forth.

communicate business concepts chapter 4

Written communication also involves verbal and nonverbal dimensions. The words you choose are the verbal dimension. How you portray or display them is the nonverbal dimension, which can include the medium e-mail or a printed documentthe typeface or font, or the appearance of your signature on a letter.

In this sense, oral and written communication are similar in their approach even as they are quite different in their application. The written word allows for a dynamic communication process between source and receiver, but is often asynchronousmeaning that it occurs at different times. When we communicate face-to-face, we get immediate feedback, but our written words stand in place of that interpersonal interaction and we lack that immediate response.

Suppose you are asked to write a message telling clients about a new product or service your company is about to offer. If you were speaking to one of them in a relaxed setting over coffee, what would you say? As the business communicator, you must focus on the words you use and how you use them.

4.1 Oral versus Written Communication

Short, simple sentences, in themselves composed of words, also communicate a business style.Choose a type of report by its function, and display the information in a vivid way that is easily understood. Pixabay — CC0 public domain.

Reports are documents designed to record and convey information to the reader. Reports are part of any business or organization; from credit reports to police reports, they serve to document specific information for specific audiences, goals, or functions.

The type of report is often identified by its primary purpose or function, as in an accident report, a laboratory report, a sales report, or even a book report. Reports are often analytical, or involve the rational analysis of information.

Other reports summarize past events, present current data, and forecast future trends. While a report may have conclusions, propositions, or even a call to action, the demonstration of the analysis is the primary function. A sales report, for example, is not designed to make an individual sale.

It is, however, supposed to report sales to date, and may forecast future sales based on previous trends. This chapter is designed to introduce you to the basics of report writing.

Reports come in all sizes, but are typically longer than a page and somewhat shorter than a book. The type of report depends on its function. The function of the report is its essential purpose, often indicated in the thesis or purpose statement. The function will also influence the types of visual content or visual aids, representing words, numbers, and their relationships to the central purpose in graphic, representational ways that are easy for the reader to understand.

The function may also contribute to parameters like report length page or word count or word choice and readability. Reports vary by function, and they also vary by style and tradition. Within your organization, there may be employer-specific expectations that need to be addressed to meet audience expectations. This chapter discusses reports in general terms, focusing on common elements and points of distinction, but reference to similar documents where you work or additional examination of specific sample reports may serve you well as you prepare your own report.

There are two main categories for reports, regardless of their specific function or type. An informational report informs or instructs and presents details of events, activities, individuals, or conditions without analysis. The report will note the time, date, place, contributing factors like weather, and identification information for the drivers involved in an automobile accident. It does not establish fault or include judgmental statements.

The second type of report is called an analytical report. An analytical report presents information with a comprehensive analysis to solve problems, demonstrate relationships, or make recommendations. An example of this report may be a field report by a Center for Disease Control CDC physician from the site of an outbreak of the H1N1 virus, noting symptoms, disease progression, steps taken to arrest the spread of the disease, and to make recommendations on the treatment and quarantine of subjects.

Table 9. Reports vary by size, format, and function. You need to be flexible and adjust to the needs of the audience while respecting customs and guidelines.Here are the latest offers for betting on the 2017 US OpenBefore a fall down the stairs of his rented home in Augusta ruled him out of The Masters, DJ was in the form of his life and seemed near untouchable in the opening quarter of 2017. With win after win, week-on-week, Johnson cemented himself atop the world rankings and looks to be there for the long haul.

Six appearances on the PGA Tour this year have warranted four top tens, signaling that McIroy has the bit between his teeth to get his hands on a fifth major championship this time out. In our opinion, it all depends on the flat stick for the Holywood native. Fancy McIlroy to win. He moved into the spotlight again with a career-defining victory at the BMW PGA Championship at Wentworth. US Opens are often defined by the mastery of scrambling, and Noren is just that.

When his game is off, he has the ability to keep ticking over thanks to an insatiable ability to get up-and-down. Similar to Harrington in his prime, Noren is a grinder prepared to do battle with any player in any conditions. A picture of consistency early in the season with a win and four top-10s on the West Coast Swing, Spieth has tailed off since a T-11 finish at The Masters. Spieth can turn things around quickly, especially when he gets the U.

The early reports of immaculate Erin Hills greens should help him continue to find his putting stroke, while his ball striking has remained strong statistically all year.

Interestingly, he posted a 69 in 2011 U.

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Amateur stroke-play qualifying at Erin Hills, then won three matches before losing in the quarterfinals. The rough at Erin Hills looks very similar to that at Carnoustie, where Garcia almost won the Open in 2007, losing in a play-off to Padraig Harrington. The Spaniard is a fantastic ball-striker, and that can be a telling factor on the most difficult courses or when conditions become more challenging.

Here are the latest offers for betting on the 2017 US OpenAre you or someone you know raising money for sport in 2017. For all the latest sports news follow PledgeSports on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Why not send us a quick message below and we'll get back to you shortly.

Here are the latest offers for betting on the 2017 US Open Dustin Johnson Before a fall down the stairs of his rented home in Augusta ruled him out of The Masters, DJ was in the form of his life and seemed near untouchable in the opening quarter of 2017. Jordan Spieth A picture of consistency early in the season with a win and four top-10s on the West Coast Swing, Spieth has tailed off since a T-11 finish at The Masters.

Write off the Spaniard at your peril. Are you or someone you know raising money for sport in 2017. They are speaking about us Winner of best sports website at the 2014 Eircom Spider awards. Alabama-Mississippi State in Starkville represents a rare top 25 matchup in this series, and that may not bode well for coach Dan Mullen (more on that later).

Alabama (9-0) boasts a 30-game regular-season winning streak. But after watching its best defensive players drop like flies last week in a less-than-inspiring win against LSU, the Tide look vulnerable. So Bama can crowd the line of scrimmage, force third-and-long, get the ball back to its offense early and often and win by strangulation. How Mississippi State can win: Win at the line of scrimmage on both sides of the ball.

Score in the low 20s, avoid giving up big, explosive plays downfield and perhaps the crowd in Starkville can witness a historic win. The Tide failed to cover the spread vs.

Florida State became a terrible team. Bama has yet to face Georgia, Auburn or Mississippi State. The week after a huge game against LSU, normally this would be a let-down spot for Alabama.The average of the heights of all members of the population is not a statistic unless that has somehow also been ascertained (such as by measuring every member of the population). The average height that would be calculated using all of the individual heights of all 25-year-old North American men is a parameter, and not a statistic.

Important potential properties of statistics include completeness, consistency, sufficiency, unbiasedness, minimum mean square error, low variance, robustness, and computational convenience. Information of a statistic on model parameters can be defined in several ways. The most common is the Fisher information, which is defined on the statistic model induced by the statistic. Kullback information measure can also be used. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, searchFor other uses, see Statistics (disambiguation).

This article needs additional citations for verification. Mathematical statistics is the application of mathematics to statistics, which was originally conceived as the science of the state the collection and analysis of facts about a country: its economy, land, military, population, and so on.

Mathematical techniques which are used for this include mathematical analysis, linear algebra, stochastic analysis, differential equations, and measure-theoretic probability theory. The initial analysis of the data from properly randomized studies often follows the study protocol. The data from a randomized study can be analyzed to consider secondary hypotheses or to suggest new ideas.

A secondary analysis of the data from a planned study uses tools from data analysis. While the tools of data analysis work best on data from randomized studies, they are also applied to other kinds of data --- for example, from natural experiments and observational studies, in which case the inference is dependent on the model chosen by the statistician, and so subjective. More complex experiments, such as those involving stochastic processes defined in continuous time, may demand the use of more general probability measures.

A probability distribution can either be univariate or multivariate. Important and commonly encountered univariate probability distributions include the binomial distribution, the hypergeometric distribution, and the normal distribution. The multivariate normal distribution is a commonly encountered multivariate distribution. Statistical inference is the process of drawing conclusions from data that are subject to random variation, for example, observational errors or sampling variation.

Inferential statistics are used to test hypotheses and make estimations using sample data.

9.4 Report

Whereas descriptive statistics describe a sample, inferential statistics infer predictions about a larger population that the sample represents. The outcome of statistical inference may be an answer to the question "what should be done next. For the most part, statistical inference makes propositions about populations, using data drawn from the population of interest via some form of random sampling.

More generally, data about a random process is obtained from its observed behavior during a finite period of time. Given a parameter or hypothesis about which one wishes to make inference, statistical inference most often uses:In statistics, regression analysis is a statistical process for estimating the relationships among variables.

It includes many techniques for modeling and analyzing several variables, when the focus is on the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. More specifically, regression analysis helps one understand how the typical value of the dependent variable (or 'criterion variable') changes when any one of the independent variables is varied, while the other independent variables are held fixed. Less commonly, the focus is on a quantile, or other location parameter of the conditional distribution of the dependent variable given the independent variables.

Many techniques for carrying out regression analysis have been developed. Nonparametric statistics are statistics not based on parameterized families of probability distributions. They include both descriptive and inferential statistics. The typical parameters are the mean, variance, etc. Unlike parametric statistics, nonparametric statistics make no assumptions about the probability distributions of the variables being assessed. Non-parametric methods are widely used for studying populations that take on a ranked order (such as movie reviews receiving one to four stars).

The use of non-parametric methods may be necessary when data have a ranking but no clear numerical interpretation, such as when assessing preferences.

In terms of levels of measurement, non-parametric methods result in "ordinal" data. As non-parametric methods make fewer assumptions, their applicability is much wider than the corresponding parametric methods.

In particular, they may be applied in situations where less is known about the application in question.CricketPrediction365 offers you latest Today Match Prediction for all the international, domestic, T20 League, Test, ODI and t20 matches.

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India to play against Sri Lanka in Sri Lanka tour of India 2017.

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A foreign trip is foreseen. Stand up for yourself and others around you. Your partner will support your decision.

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However, this will help you strengthen your bond with your colleagues. Put all your energies in doing something you love.

communicate business concepts chapter 4

The day is good for indulging in recreational activities or hobbies. However, refrain from over-spending. Few of you may meet someone special today. Monetary gain from an unexpected source is foreseen. Also, your health should be of prime importance to you.Never miss an inplay bet again with the FreeSuperTips app. We bring the best football betting tips straight to YOU for FREE.

communicate business concepts chapter 4

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communicate business concepts chapter 4

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